Valerie Sakimura from Deans for Impact addresses this question with a thoughtful response in an article published at The 74. Austin Peay State University’s Grow Your Own program is one of the programs highlighted. This common question about effectiveness is the wrong question. All programs illicit some degree of effectiveness for someone, in one context or another. A better question might be to ask: what are the program elements that lead to retention in the profession? Read more here.